Green cards were formerly issued by the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS)
. The Homeland Security Act
of 2002 separated INS into three components within the Department of Homeland Security. The first, the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS)
is in charge of applications for immigration benefits. The other two agencies are the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and Customs and Border Protection (CBP), respectively.